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We are now going to look at how to deliver oxygen to a pet. This is a standard BOC cylinder. The key thing with these is you have got to keep them safe, we do not want to leave it standing upright because we do not want any risk of the cylinder falling over and potentially breaking, and then gas escaping. And also, it is explosive and is a fire risk. Just to very briefly go over it, they are always labelled clearly that they are oxygen. On here we have got a gauge, that shows how much oxygen is in the cylinder, an on/off valve, here, just open this up and this is the push-fit where the mask will go onto. And on the very top is the gauge where we can set the flow of oxygen.

So, to actually connect up, all we would do is we would take the pipe, push that on to the hose, they are just push-fit, so you can easily put them on, take them off with no problem. Then, what we have got here are some oxygen masks for pets. Now, these masks are standard ones that you would use, you can use them easily with an unconscious dog during operating, operations, but you could also use them for a dog who is recovering. However, there will be a point where the dog will refuse to wear it and just push it off. All you do is connect the oxygen to the end of the valve, so again, it is just a push-fit, goes straight in place. The holes on the side are so that the air can be exhaled out. So, the idea is the oxygen coming in through here is 100%, mixing inside this chamber, the dog breathes it in. When it exhales, the pressure will build up and the air will be exhaled outside, as will some of the extra oxygen, but the dog is increasing the amount of oxygen it is taking in.

Here is a rubber collar, and this will just grip around their nose. Now, they are not going to be able to easily pant, but really if a dog started panting, then maybe this is not the best way of actually popping its nose in. What we can do in those sort of instances, is literally just hold the mask near their mouth, so you have quite an easy way of delivering oxygen to the animal. To turn the cylinder on, take the black knob here and just turn it fully on, and then half a turn back, it just allows for expansion if the cylinder changes temperature. On the top here, you have got the knob where you set the flow of oxygen, and the maximum flow on these is 15 litres a minute. And there is a number in there, so if you just turn the button around, you can just turn that on. So, we pop it on to 15 litres per minute. The oxygen is now flowing through, it is flowing into the mask, and then you can monitor the dog, and it will be delivering the oxygen through it 100%, or as near 100% as we can get.

Keep an eye on them the whole time you are delivering this. Keep an eye around, also make sure that the cylinder is stable. To actually shut this down, you just work it in reverse. So, we can take the mask off the dog, turn the button at the top, turn the oxygen off. Then go to the main connector, turn that off. And then on the top, you just need to take the pressure out of the regulator, just turn the button on the top. Let it hiss, and it has stopped, and then we can close it off. And then we can just remove the masks, and pop those away. These masks can be single use, but also you can disinfect them and sterilise them, and use them again.

So, there are different sorts of sizes of masks available. Just make sure you get the right mask for the right size of the dog. Remember, you can hold it away from them if need be. Other things you can do with oxygen is pop the dog into what they call an oxygen tent, so it is a hold like a cage, which is the level of oxygen in the cage is increased, that works very, very well. And there is a veterinary practice, not something we would do with first aid, they also use nasal cannulas sometimes, either the sort you have in the hospital, where it just goes underneath the nose with the nozzles, or you can have one that actually goes into the nose to actually deliver 100% oxygen. But the cannulas are of something you would see more on the veterinary side.

If we use smaller animals, an example here, we have got a cat, exactly the same way we would use the oxygen mask, they work the same, still got the collar and it is connected up exactly the same, it is just that the mask is physically smaller. So, with this, we can pop that over their nose and hold it in place. We can support it, it will stay there on its own as well if they are unconscious, but if they are conscious, you obviously need to keep an eye on it and make sure it stays in place so that we can deliver the oxygen safely.

Finally, it is worth noting that these sort of mask systems are being put into a lot of the fire services now because the fire service is going to have to rescue humans, but also rescue the pets. There is a charity called Smokey Paws, and their goal is to get all fire engines and all fire services to have these kits. So, they raise money and put these kits into fire stations, and then give them relevant training. Because firemen are already trained at delivering oxygen, this just means that it gives them the equipment to actually give proper first aid to a pet in need.