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Oxygen is vital for life. In the environment, you've roughly got around about 21% oxygen, when we inhale, so that's 21% going in. The body uses around about 5%, so when we exhale, it's around about 16%. So, if we were doing CPR onto an animal, the air that we blow out is roughly about 16% oxygen, which is more than enough to sustain life. We can increase this, we can also give supplementary oxygen in cases where an animal has been exposed to smoke, or in fires, and or has any other illnesses.

Now, a lot of you won't have access to oxygen, however, some will, which is why we have included it on the course. There are also special considerations with oxygen. Oxygen is a key component of the fire triangle. It will combust, so you need to make sure that you use it carefully. There are special rules in getting hold of oxygen. It may be in your workplace you do have oxygen, you have emergency oxygen kits, or you work within the veterinary practice side and you have oxygen there.

So, oxygen come in different forms. Here, we have got a standard BOC cylinder of oxygen. Also, you might find in a veterinary practice or a hospital, you would have plummeted oxygen. So, you would have large cylinders outside in a pipe system, the same as what you see around someone's hospital bed. They wouldn't have this type of thing unless they've been moved in a hospital that has an actual socket on the wall where they can connect oxygen.

So, the oxygen itself is 100% medical grade oxygen. There are no other gases inside here. We'd never use things like welding oxygen because this is an impure gas, we'd always use medical grade. So, when would you use oxygen? Now, hypoxia is a lack of oxygen to the body's tissues. You might well see in a car accident and you'll see within the human side, see oxygen is put on very, very rapidly. What we would do there is try and increase the amount of oxygen being inhaled into the lungs, therefore, we can increase the saturated oxygen going through the body. Now, if we give the example of maybe a fire, so a pet has been pulled out of a house, there's a lot of smoke. It's got a lot of toxins in its blood; its lungs aren't going to be performing well because of the dirt and all the gases that have been into the lungs. So, by putting 100% oxygen in or as near as we can get 100% oxygen, then the body is going to be much more able to saturate itself with oxygen and therefore promote recovery.

So, oxygen is very useful. So, in things like smoke, also within the veterinary practice side or other care, you may well find that it's given to treat illnesses or if after an operation or things like that. Within the first aid side, primarily, we'll be using oxygen in the event of CPR or supplementary oxygen after an animal has been taken out from a potentially dangerous situation. Also, another example could be a drowning situation, where dogs inhaled a lot of water. It's conscious, it's breathing, or even if it's unconscious and breathing, we can give it extra oxygen.